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Từ điển Oxford Learners Wordfinder Dictionary
defile


I - noun
a narrow pass (especially one between mountains)
Syn:
gorge
Hypernyms:
pass, mountain pass, notch

II - verb
1. spot, stain, or pollute
- The townspeople defiled the river by emptying raw sewage into it
Syn:
foul, befoul, maculate
Derivationally related forms:
macula (for: maculate), maculation (for: maculate), defilement, defiler, befoulment (for: befoul)
Hypernyms:
dishonor, disgrace, dishonour, attaint, shame
Verb Frames:
- Somebody ----s something
- Somebody ----s somebody
- Something ----s somebody
- Something ----s something
2. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon
- sully someone's reputation
Syn:
sully, corrupt, taint, cloud
Derivationally related forms:
cloud (for: cloud)
Hypernyms:
mar, impair, spoil, deflower, vitiate
Verb Frames:
- Somebody ----s something
- Something ----s somebody
- Something ----s something
3. make dirty or spotty, as by exposure to air;
also used metaphorically
- The silver was tarnished by the long exposure to the air
- Her reputation was sullied after the affair with a married man
Syn:
tarnish, stain, maculate, sully
Derivationally related forms:
macula (for: maculate), maculation (for: maculate), stain (for: stain), tarnish (for: tarnish)
Hypernyms:
spot, fleck, blob, blot
Hyponyms:
darken
Verb Frames:
- Something ----s
- Somebody ----s something
- Something ----s something

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