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Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th
first



first [first firsts] determiner, ordinal number, adverb, noun BrE [fɜːst] NAmE [fɜːrst]
determiner, ordinal number
1. happening or coming before all other similar things or people; 1st
his first wife
It was the first time they had ever met.
I didn't take the first bus.
students in their first year at college
your first impressions
She resolved to do it at the first (= earliest) opportunity.
King Edward I (= pronounced ‘King Edward the First’)
the first of May/May 1st
His second book is better than his first.
2. the most important or best
Your first duty is to your family.
She won first prize in the competition.
an issue of the first importance
Rem: Most idioms containing first are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example on first acquaintance is at acquaintance.

Word Origin:
Old English fyr(e)st; of Germanic origin, related to Old Norse fyrstr and German Fürst ‘prince’, from an Indo-European root shared by Sanskrit prathama, Latin primus, and Greek prōtos.

Thesaurus:
first det., adj.
1.
It was the first time they had ever met.
initial • • original • • earliest • • opening • • introductory • • preliminary • |especially BrE, formal preparatory • |formal technical primary
Opp: last
the first/initial/earliest/opening/introductory/preliminary/preparatory/primary stage
a/an first/initial/original/preliminary estimate/draft/version
a/an first/initial/preliminary step/appointment/visit
2.
She won first prize in the competition.
top • • main • • key • • highest • • primary • • prime • |informal number one • |especially written foremost • |especially written journalism premier
Opp: last
the/our first/top/main/key/highest/number one/foremost priority
the/our first/top/main/key/primary/prime/foremost/number one concern
(the) first/top/premier division/prize

Language Bank:
first
Ordering your points
This study has the following aims: first , to investigate how international students in the UK use humour; second , to examine how jokes can help to establish social relationships; and, third , to explore the role that humour plays in helping overseas students adjust to life in the UK.
Let us begin by identifying some of the popular joke genres in the UK.
Next, let us turn to / Next, let us consider the question of gender differences in the use of humour.
Finally / Lastly , let us briefly examine the role of humour in defining a nation's culture.
notes at ↑firstly, ↑lastly
Language Banks at ↑conclusion, ↑process

Example Bank:
First impressions can be misleading.
I didn't take the first bus.
If he wants to see me, he should make the first move.
Local voters gave Steven Hughes first preference.
My first impulse was to run away.
She resolved to do it at the first opportunity.
She's in her first year at college
This is an issue of the first importance.
We're having chicken for the first course.
When the first settlers moved into the area they faced immense hardship.
You can have first choice of all the rooms.
Idioms:at first come first first among equals first and foremost first and last first come, first served first of all first off first up from first to last from the first put somebody first there's a first time for everything
 
adverb
1. before anyone or anything else; at the beginning
‘Do you want a drink?’ ‘I'll finish my work first.’
First I had to decide what to wear.
Who came first in the race (= who won)?
It plunged nose first into the river.
2. for the first time
When did you first meet him?
3. used to introduce the first of a list of points you want to make in a speech or piece of writing
Syn: firstly
This method has two advantages: first it is cheaper and second it is quicker.
4. used to emphasize that you are determined not to do sth
She swore that she wouldn't apologize— she'd die first!
more at feet first at foot n., head first at head n., safety first at safety

Word Origin:
Old English fyr(e)st; of Germanic origin, related to Old Norse fyrstr and German Fürst ‘prince’, from an Indo-European root shared by Sanskrit prathama, Latin primus, and Greek prōtos.

Language Bank:
process
Describing a process
This diagram illustrates the process of paper-making. / This diagram shows how paper is made.
First / First of all , logs are delivered to a paper mill, where the bark is removed and the wood is cut into small chips.
Next / Second , the wood chips are pulped, either using chemicals or in a pulping machine.
Pulping breaks down the internal structure of the wood and enables / allows the natural oils to be removed.
Once / After the wood has been pulped, the pulp is bleached in order to remove impurities. /…is bleached so that impurities can be removed.
The next stage is to feed the pulp into the paper machine, where it is mixed with water and then poured onto a wire conveyor belt.
As the pulp travels along the conveyor belt, the water drains away. This causes the solid material to sink to the bottom, forming a layer of paper.
At this point the new paper is still wet, so it is passed between large heated rollers, which press out the remaining water and simultaneously dry the paper. / …dry the paper at the same time .
The final stage is to wind the paper onto large rolls. / Finally , the paper is wound onto large rolls.
notes at ↑firstly, ↑lastly
Language Banks at ↑conclusion, ↑first

Which Word?:
firstly / first of all / at first
Firstly and first (of all) are used to introduce a series of facts, reasons, opinions, etc: The brochure is divided into two sections, dealing firstly with basic courses and secondly with advanced ones. Firstly is more common in BrE than in NAmE.
At first is used to talk about the situation at the beginning of a period of time, especially when you are comparing it with a different situation at a later period: Maggie had seen him nearly every day at first. Now she saw him much less.

Example Bank:
Who came first in the race?

 
noun
1. the firstcountable (pl. the first)the first person or thing mentioned; the first person or thing to do a particular thing
I was the first in my family to go to college.
Sheila and Jim were the first to arrive.
I'd be the first to admit (= I will most willingly admit) I might be wrong.
The first I heard about the wedding (= the first time I became aware of it) was when I saw it in the local paper.
2. countable, usually singular an achievement, event, etc, never done or experienced before
We went on a cruise, a first for both of us.
3. (also ˌfirst ˈgear)uncountable the lowest gear on a car, bicycle, etc. that you use when you are moving slowly
He stuck the car in first and revved.
4. countable ~ (in sth) the highest level of university degree at British universities
She got a first in maths at Exeter.
compare second, ↑third

Word Origin:
Old English fyr(e)st; of Germanic origin, related to Old Norse fyrstr and German Fürst ‘prince’, from an Indo-European root shared by Sanskrit prathama, Latin primus, and Greek prōtos.

Example Bank:
As he moved into first the gear-lever knob came off in his hand.
He got a first in modern history.
It's very difficult to find first on this car.
Put the car into first and pull off slowly.
She did Philosophy and English Literature and got a double first.
She engaged first gear and pulled off.
There was something wrong with the gearbox and I had to drive all the way home in first.

 

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